Below you will find a comprehensive set of truffle tree FAQ (frequently asked questions) telling you all you need to know about our truffle trees - growing, tree and truffle species, soils, planting, buying, delivery, travelling with trees and looking for truffles. The last section, Additional Information has details of books and web sites on growing truffles. If you have a question that is not covered here, please get in touch and we will try to help.
Any information or advice provided in these truffle tree FAQ is based on the most up-to-date information available to The English Truffle Company at the time of writing. All due care was exercised in its preparation. Any action taken in response to this information is the sole decision of the user of the information and is taken at his or her own risk. Accordingly, The English Truffle Company disclaims any liability whatsoever in respect of any losses or damages arising out of the use of this information or in respect of any actions taken in reliance upon the validity of the information.
Growing Truffles FAQ
How long will it take for truffles to grow?
If you are successful in growing truffles, they generally appear after roughly 4 - 7 years from planting. We have heard of the first truffles being found after two years and as many as twelve.
Am I guaranteed to get truffles?
No. The trees are all certified as being inoculated with the appropriate truffle fungus. They will, however, only produce truffles under optimum conditions: if the tree remains healthy, is watered and the soil and climatic conditions are right then you may get truffles.
How long will I get truffles for?
If you are successful in growing truffles and the trees are maintained properly, you may continue to get truffles for 20 - 40 years.
What yields might I get?
Reliable information on truffle yields is very difficult to obtain. Variables include:
- Weather conditions, primarily rainfall and temperature, mean truffle production, like other mushrooms, will vary dramatically from year to year.
- Age of trees – in general it takes c. 5 years for production to start then increases over time for c. first 5 years.
- The tree planting density.
- The skill of the truffle dog and handler.
- Site specific conditions – soil, nutrients etc.
We have seen / heard these figures (could be up to 1600 trees depending upon truffle species and planting design):
- 15 / 20 kg per hectare is considered good.
- Some 50 kg per hectare.
- Very best 100 – 150 kg per hectare.
- One estimate, 50g - 1.8 kg per tree
- One small Summer truffle plantation of 13 trees produced 9.1 kg of truffle in one year (700g per tree).
- One southern England orchard had 15 kg found on their first harvest of the season and has had many more as the season has progressed.
Again, you are not guaranteed to get truffles - see above.
Truffle and Tree Species
Truffle and Tree Species FAQ
Which species of tree should I buy?
Your primary concern should be the size of the tree when it grows. Hazel is generally a shrub tree and smaller than an Oak. A Hazel can be coppiced (cut back) every 7 or so years to maintain it at a lower height. If left to grow it can reach 12 metres. A fully-grown Oak (English or Holm) can be over 15 metres high. For some more general information see these Woodland Trust pages:
Which species of truffle should the trees I buy be inoculated with?
We offer a choice of:
- Black Summer Truffle (Tuber aestivum var uncinatum) – the commonest truffle species in Europe. It is a close cousin to the Black Winter (Périgord) Truffle though the aroma and flavour are less strong.
- Black Winter (Périgord) Truffle (Tuber melanosporum) – the most valuable and highly rated species of Black truffle.
Part of the answer to which truffle species to buy is to consider their natural distribution:
- The Black Summer truffle is found growing naturally where soil types are suitable in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. In Europe, it is found, from Ireland to the Balkans, from Portugal to Finland.
- Naturally occurring Black Winter (Périgord) truffles are confined to Mediterranean areas such as parts southern France, Italy and Croatia.
However, in recent years, Black Winter (Périgord) truffles have been successfully cultivated in the UK. We understand that this has been done at three locations – South Wales, Sandringham House in Norfolk under Prince Philip’s supervision (registration required to read full article) and another location in Norfolk. Recent research has shown that the climatic tolerance of these truffles is much broader than previously thought, and it is likely that this is only possible because of climate change. It is thought that some areas of the UK are now suitable for growing them, though clearly, it has only been demonstrated a small number of times. In the absence of a published UK map, we have attempted to produce our own. We have taken the method used in this Czech Study:
Čejka, T., Trnka, M., Krusic, P.J. et al. Predicted climate change will increase the truffle cultivation potential in central Europe. Sci Rep 10, 21281 (2020). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-76177-0
and applied their numbers to the UK using comparable climate data from this study:
Met Office; Hollis, D.; McCarthy, M.; Kendon, M.; Legg, T.; Simpson, I. (2020): HadUK-Grid Gridded Climate Observations on a 5km grid over the UK, v188.8.131.52 (1862-2019). Centre for Environmental Data Analysis, 21 October 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.5285/2fd7c824e7e549809c1bc6a128ad74db.
and Ordnance Survey OS Terrain 50 data.
This map should only be used as a guide - at your own risk!
Please note that this map is for one species of truffle - Black Winter truffle. Black Summer truffle is native to Great Britain and Ireland and has less stringent climatic requirements. It has been grown successfully in England, Wales and Scotland.
Truffle Tree Soils FAQ
What soil conditions are required?
The ideal soil for your truffle-tree has not been compacted, is well drained and alkaline (not acidic). pH is a measure of soil acidity and can be tested with simple kits from most garden centres. If you require more precise, laboratory-based testing please contact us. Ideal pH values are:
- Black Summer Truffle - 7.3 – 8.0.
- Black Winter (Périgord) Truffle - 7.5 - 8.5
If your pH is too low, then it can be easily increased by applying a small amount of lime to the planting site. Garden lime is available from most garden centres and should be raked-into the area where your tree will be planted. An excellent guide to lime and liming can be found here.
Truffle Tree Planting FAQ
Detailed information is given in the planting and growing booklet that comes with your trees. Below are some additional points.
If you order trees in the summer they should be watered as soon as they arrive with you, kept in a cool place and watered occasionally until they are planted.
Waterlogged or frozen ground
You should plant your trees as soon as you can after receiving them. However, if the ground is frozen or waterlogged it is better to wait until conditions improve. Trees can be kept for a few days in the package in a dry and frost-free place such as an unheated garage or shed. If you are keeping them longer before planting, you can do the same but occasionally water to avoid them drying out.
When grown in rows the standard spacings are:
- Summer truffle - 2 metres between trees and 3 metres between rows.
- Black Winter (Périgord) truffle - 3 metres between trees and 3 metres between rows.
Planting near other trees
Existing trees may have fungi growing on them and their roots. It is possible that these fungi may compete with the truffle fungus so general advice is that you should separate truffle trees from existing ones either through distance or a physical barrier such as polythene dug-in to a depth of 0.5 metres. However, existing trees fall into two groups:
- Those that can be grown adjacent to truffle trees without the risk of competing fungi.
- Those that may harbour fungi that compete with truffle fungi. These plants cause problems if they are present in an area where a truffle trees are to be established or if they are included in windbreaks.
Lists of trees in each of these two categories are given in Appendix 1 and 2 respectively within the book we recommend Taming The Truffle, they can also be found on on-line here (PDF file). These are global lists so many species are not grown in Europe.
Should I add compost?
When planting the tree, do not add compost or peat to the soil, this makes it more acidic and can kill off the truffle fungus.
Should I add fertiliser?
Do not add any fertiliser to the soil when planting the tree. High phosphorus levels, as found in many fertilisers, hinder the union between fungus and host tree.
Should I add any mycorrhizal soil additives?
No, these may outcompete the truffle fungus.
Should I mulch the trees?
A mulch can be used around the base to control weeds, however you should avoid any mulch that may have been treated with a fungicide.
Should I protect the trees?
A mesh guard or tree shelter will protect the young tree against damage by animals such as deer, hares or mice. For windy sites, stakes should be used.
Insufficient watering is the main reason for new trees dying. You should water trees planted in the ground for the first two summers. Trees planted in pots will continue to need watering. This link gives excellent advice on watering new trees (please ignore the bit on mulching). It is preferable to use rainwater (from your water butt) to tap water.
Can I grow truffle trees in pots?
Ideally the trees should be planted in the ground, however truffles can be grown with pot grown trees in very large pots. Planting the trees in pots will reduce the number of truffles you might get, as it will limit the tree growth. For the best results plant more than one tree in a pot so the roots can interact. If you decide to plant them into the ground in the future, put the entire contents of the pot into the ground without disturbing. Please note that pot grown trees (especially Oaks) will need frequent watering in periods of hot weather e.g. every other day.
Can I put some sheep in my truffle orchard? It would certainly keep the grass down which would be great. Are sheep likely to disturb any truffles or their environment?
The issue is ground compaction. It could be risked during the summer when the ground is dry but our expert says they wouldn't unless the sheep were being closely monitored and even then with only a few lighter footed sheep.
Should I cut the grass / manage weeds growing around the trees?
It is generally thought that you should keep vegetation down around truffle trees. Some mow / some spray. You want to avoid compacting the soil around the trees with heavy equipment and should remove cut (mown or strimmed) vegetation. We are not in favour of spraying, especially once trees start to produce.
Can I coppice the hazel?
Yes, you can, but we suggest leaving a small number of stems rather than removing them all, as this may "shock" the truffle fungus.
Buying Truffle Tree FAQ
When should I buy truffle trees?
We supply them at any time of the year, however, the best time to plant them is in the dormant period between November and March. If you buy them in the summer they should be watered as soon as they arrive with you, kept in a cool place and watered occasionally until they are planted. We do not usually recommend sending trees to warmer countries when it will be hotter.
What if I can't plant them immediately?
Trees can be kept for a few days (a week or so) in the package in a dry and frost free place such as an unheated garage or shed. If you are keeping them longer before planting (or the weather is warm) you can do the same but occasionally water to avoid them drying out.
How big are the trees when I buy them?
The hazel trees are between 60cm - 90cm tall, the oak trees vary in size from around 15cm to 40cm. All the trees are approximately 1 year old.
How are they supplied?
The trees are grown in rootrainers (deep seed trays, divided into separate segments) and the soil / roots are wrapped in film to be sent out. So they are NOT supplied bare-rooted.
Are bigger / older trees available?
No, we only sell them as above. Having a bigger tree doesn’t accelerate the process towards trying to get truffles. The truffle fungus still needs to spread into the soil around the tree and mature.
Can I have a different number of trees?
Yes, of course. For a different number of trees please contact us.
Can I have a different combination of tree species?
Yes, of course. For a different combination of tree species, please select "Other combination" from the list of Tree species and then put your requirements in the "Order Notes" at the checkout.
Can I have a combination of truffle species?
Yes, of course. If you are ordering more than one tree and would like them to have different truffle species, please select "Mixed Species" and put your requirements in the "Order Notes" at the checkout.
Do your hazel trees produce hazelnuts?
Yes, they will. The pH needed for truffle cultivation is higher than optimal for nut production, but they still produce quite large nuts (if you get to them before the squirrels!). The Hazels are the European Hazel (Corylus avellana) and the variety "Kentish Cob". They are monoecious meaning both male and female flowers are on the same plant. Pollination is by wind and is better with 2 or more plants.
Truffle Tree Delivery FAQ
We regret that we will now only supply truffle trees to Great Britain, Channel Island and Isle of Man addresses. We apologise to our Northern Ireland and overseas customers. We hope to resume sending to Northern Ireland as soon as possible.
CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) - Delivery times may be longer than normal due to increased levels of delivery company employee absence due to illness and self-isolation.
Can I order the trees to arrive on a specific date?
We would recommend you use the express delivery service which delivers within 2 working days of us processing your order. Please note that occasionally, we may not be around to process your order immediately or the volume of orders to process may not make this possible.
Do I need to be in to receive my trees?
No, the UK standard delivery service we use does not require a signature. It does however help if you give us details of where they should be left if no one is in. In summer this should be somewhere cool - not in a greenhouse or sunny porch! A contact telephone number can be useful if the courier has problems.
How long does the standard delivery take?
Trees typically take up to 7 working days to arrive (usually a lot less). If you would like them quicker please use the Express Delivery option.
Do I need to be in to receive my trees?
Yes, a signature is required.
How long does express delivery take?
The express delivery service delivers within 2 working days (subject to us being around to process your order).
No Shipping Charge
This option can only be used when you would like to collect your trees at one of our events which you are booked on. If you choose this but your order needs to be sent to you, we will require payment for delivery before dispatching your trees. If you would like your trees sending, you must choose a paid delivery option.
Looking For Truffles
Looking For Truffles FAQ
Truffles are traditionally found with the aid of an untrained pig who will naturally seek out the truffles. However, these days commercial truffle farms use trained dogs as they are less likely to eat the truffle and work more quickly and usually more efficiently. If you have a good number of trees you can rent a truffle hound. If you only have a few trees then you may be able to find truffles without a pig or trained dog, using the following techniques:
1) If you look carefully around your trees you may notice small cracks in the ground, underneath these cracks there may lurk truffles.
2) You can look for the presence of the ‘truffle-fly’. This is a small fly that hovers directly over where truffles are buried. If you disturb the top layer of soil and look closely you may be able to see these light brown, "lazy" flies hovering over the surface. This is normally an indication that a truffle is lurking directly below.
3) Smell. Although the human nose is a pretty poor utensil in comparison to our canine friends, you may be able to use it to locate truffles. If you get on your hands and knees (ignoring any strange looks from neighbours) and sniff the ground directly you may be able to locate ripe truffles by their scent alone.
4) The final, and most destructive, method of looking for truffles is to gently scrape away the top layer of soil around your trees. This should be done very slowly and delicately to minimise damage and ensure you locate any truffles. This technique can be used if you are desperate but is not recommended as it is so destructive.
Travelling With Trees
Travelling With Truffle Trees FAQ
After the end of the Brexit transition period on 31st December 2020, people travelling from the UK into the EU are NOT allowed to bring plants, fruits, vegetables, flowers or seeds into the EU without a phytosanitary certificate. This plant health certificate issued by a UK plant health authority confirms that the product is free from certain specific pests. This applies regardless whether they are carried in luggage, vehicles, or on their person. If your trees are inspected by customs and you do not have a certificate then they may be seized and destroyed. We do not take any responsibility for this.
You can find additional information from the UK Government here.
If you want to go into more detail than our truffle tree FAQ, here are some books, web sites and videos on growing truffles.
Tree School Online: Commercial Truffle Cultivation in Western Oregon - YouTube lecture by Charles Lefevre of New World Truffieres in the United States.
Part 1 starts at about 8 minutes in and is about truffles and truffle farming. It is about 50 minutes long followed by questions. Part 2 is of less relevance to a European audience. Do note, in the main, he is talking about THE Black truffle (Périgord truffle) and so not everything said relates to the Summer truffle which is more commonly cultivated in the UK. Regardless, it is a very useful talk.
Truffle farming: basic concepts - YouTube lecture by Luz Cocina-Romero of MicoLab in Spain.
It is just under 2 hours long. Do note, in the main, she is talking about THE Black truffle (Périgord truffle). Not everything said therefore applies to the Summer truffle which is more commonly cultivated in the UK. We wouldn't agree with everything that it is said but it is still a very valuable talk.